6|Health and Safety Auditing ➸

Auditing is a way of supporting monitoring by providing managers with information. it will show how effectively plans and the components of health and safety management system are being implemented.

Three methods of gathering information during an audit:

  • Documentation
  • Observation
  • Interview

The process of auditing involves:

  • Gathering information from all levels of an organisation about the health and safety management system.
  • Marking informed judgements about its adequacy and performance.

The aims of auditing should should show that:

  • Appropriate management arrangements are in place.
  • Adequate risk control systems exist, are implemented and are consistent with the Hazard profile of the organisation.
  • Appropriate workplace precautions are in place.

There are two types of auditing:

  • Internal Auditing
  • External Auditing 


  1. Internal Auditing:


  • Less costly                                                                                    
  •  Easily arranged                                            
  •  Ability to see improvement                                 
  •  Familiar with the workplace                             


  • Do not get honest views  
  • pressure from the workforce
  • Time constraints 
  • Miss issues due to familiarity. 


2. External Auditing:


  • Comes with new perspectives            
  • Have solution from somewhere else        
  • Have the necessary auditing skills                              


  • Unfamiliar with Industry
  • Unfamiliar with workforce
  • Can be very costly

5.1.1|Active vs. Reactive monitoring ➸

Chapter 5.1.1 concerns the checking or monitoring of health and safety performance, including both active measures such as inspections, and reactive measures like injury statistics. It is concerned with the recording of incidents and accidents at work, their investigation, the legal reporting requirements and simple analysis of incidents to help managers benefit from investigation and recording process.  

Measurement is a key step in any management Processes and forms the basis of continuous improvement.

There are two basic types of checking and monitoring:

Active Monitoring involves routine inspection and checks to make sure that standards and policies are being implemented and that controls are working.

Active monitoring should contain the elements necessary to have a proactive system and should include: 

  • Surveillance of the working environment.
  • Monitoring of the achievement of specific plans, established performances criteria and objectives.
  • Surveillance of workers’ health.
  • The Systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment.


Reactive Monitoring involves looking at historical events to learn from mistakes and see what can be put right to prevent a recurrence. 

Reactive monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of:

  • Work-related injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence records), diseases and incidents.
  • Other losses, such as damage to property.
  • Deficient safety and health performance, and OHS management system failures.
  • Worker’s rehabilitation and health-restoration programmes .

3 Sources for OHS Information ➸

In this post I will provide 3 sources about occupational health and safety information.



  1. ILO (International Labour Organisation)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all. 




2. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Is the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to make sure safe and healthful working environments for working men and women by setting and applying standards and by providing training, outreach, education .




3. IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health)

is a British organisation for health and safety professionals.It has over 43,000 members, including thousands of Chartered Safety and Health Practitioners. I liked that they have the highest entry standards.

3.2|OHS Culture ➸

The health and safety culture of an organisation may be described as the development stage of the organisation in health and safety management at a particular time.

If you want a positive health and safety culture, check out the following points:

  • Systems for monitoring equipment, processes and procedures.
  • Leadership and commitment to health and safety throughout and at all levels of the organisation which is demonstrated in a visible way.
  • Acceptance that high standards of health and safety are achievable as part of a long-term strategy formulated by the organisation requiring sustained effort and interest.
  • The prompt investigation of all incidents and accidents and reports made detailing any necessary remedial actions.


The main indicators for the development of health and safety must:

  • be Understand and owned by the organisation.
  • provide immediate and reliable indication of the performance level.
  • be objective and easy to Measure and collect
  • be cost-effective in terms of equipment, personnel and additional technology required to gather the information
  • be relevant to the organisation.

Indicators of a poor health and safety culture:

  • a weak health and safety management structure.
  • poor selection procedures and management of contractors.
  • high insurance premiums.
  • poor levels of communication, cooperation and control.
  • management decisions that consistently put production or cost before health and safety considerations.
  • a high sickness, ill-health and absence of rate among the workforce.
  • the perception of a blame culture.

2.3|Health and Safety Policy ➸

A health and safety policy is a written statement by an employer stating the company’s commitment for the protection of the health and safety of employees and to the public. 

Having a clear health and safety policy allows everybody associated with an organisation to be aware of the health and safety aims and objectives and how they are to be achieved.

There are some important features for having a great appropriate content of health and safety policy such as:

  • Signed and dated.
  • Concise and clearly written.
  • Continuously improved.
  • Readily accessible and communicated to all persons at the workplace.

I  chose a health and safety policy of  South Thames College in UK.


As we can see in the picture below, the statement of intent have the objectives and aims of the organisation or company. It is signed by Senior Managers and the date is provided.


on the next page of the policy the responsibilities and duties of everyone working in the organisation, starting from the board of the corporation to the contractors.

In my opinion, I can consider that the South Thames college health and safety policy is a good policy. It has everything a policy need from statement of intent, objectives and responsibilities.

1.2|The Moral, Social and Economic Reasons for Good OHS Standards ➸

The reasons for establishing good occupational health and safety standards are frequently identified as:

  • Moral Reasons 
  • Social Reasons
  • Economic Reasons  

1.2.1|Moral Reasons ➸

The moral reasons are supported by the occupational accident and disease rates.


The main (preventable) factors for accidents are:

  • Poor supervision and enforcement by the government.
  • lack of preventative safety and health culture.
  • Poor management systems.

Injuries and deaths take a particularly heavy toll in developing countries. A large part of the population is engaged in hazardous activities such as agriculture, construction and fishing. 

Accident Rates ➸

An employee should not have to risk injury, ill-health or death at work. Accidents at work can lead to serious injury and can also lead to death. A study for the ILO has estimated that there are approximately 350,000 work-related fatalities annually, of which 160,000 are due to fatal commuting accidents.

Disease rates ➸

Disease related work cause the most deaths among workers. Globally as recorded by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), around 2 million deaths per year are due to work-related disease which corresponds to nearly 80% of all work-related deaths.

1.2.2|Social Reasons ➸


In all countries and regions, employers owe a mission of caring to their employees and every other person that might be affected by their commitment. 

In the health and safety work place there are some rules or missions that every employers should provide for their employees. This mission can be divided into 5 points that employers must:

  • Deliver a safe place or work containing an entrance and a way out.
  • Be responsible for providing a suitable stages of management, information, instruction and training.
  • Provide a safe plant and tools.
  • Deliver a safe method of work.
  • Provide a safe experienced fellow employees.

Every worker should care about his fellows to maintain a safety work place for everyone.

1.2.3|Financial Reasons ➸

Poor occupational health and safety performance results in additional costs to both public and private sectors of the economy of a country.


The ILO estimates that about 4% of the global gross domestic product- that is, around US$2.8 trillion- is lost due to work accidents and occupational diseases.

Prevention is paying not only in human terms, but also in better performance by business and national economic strength. Together we can make sure that decent work is safe work.

(Thaksin Shinawatra, Former Prime Minister pf Thailand) 

Costs of Accidents ➸

The study suggested that the costs due to work-related diseases may be twice as high as that caused by accidents at work. Also the UK Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) says too many employers are failing to appreciate the financial benefits of worker protection and are placing it way down on their list of priorities. 

Direct Costs ➸

There are costs which are directly related to the accident and may be insured or uninsured.

A) Insured direct costs ➸

  • The absence of employees.
  • Damage to buildings, equipment or vehicles.
  • Any attributable production or/and general business lose.
  • Claims on employers and public liability insurance.

B) Uninsured direct costs ➸

  • Any compensation not covered by the insurance policy due to an excess agreed between the employer and the insurance company.
  • Some damage to product, equipment, vehicles or process not directly attributable to the accident.
  • Sick pay.
  • Legal representation following any compensation claim.
  • Fines resulting from prosecution by the enforcement authority.

Indirect costs ➸

A) Insured indirect costs ➸

  • Product or process liability claims.
  • Recruitment of replacement staff
  • A cumulative business loss.

B) Uninsured indirect costs ➸

  • Lost time for other employees, such as first-aid staff, who tend to the needs of the injured person.
  • Accident investigation time and any subsequent remedial action required.
  • Production delays.
  • Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image.
  • First-aid provision and training.
  • Extra overtime payments.
  • Additional administration time incurred.